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Dramatically perched above the city on Castle Rock, you can wander up to the landmark from the atmospheric, cobbled Royal Mile. Take an interactive flight with us over the castle - how many landmarks can you spot from here?

More about Edinburgh Castle: There are some places in Scotland where it is possible to feel transported to another time.

As the steward of the beautifully preserved Caerlaverock Castle, Jackie gets to experience this every day. Watch as she gives us a glimpse of the awe-inspiring beauty and timeless atmosphere that draws visitors to this magnificent monument time and again.

A spirit of its own. Discover it for yourself at https: High-Low List View Map view. According to chronicler William of Newburgh royal castles formed the "bones of the kingdom".

A number of royal castles were linked to forests and other key resources. Royal forests in the early medieval period were subject to special royal jurisdiction; forest law was, as historian Robert Huscroft describes it, "harsh and arbitrary, a matter purely for the King's will" and forests were expected to supply the king with hunting grounds, raw materials, goods and money.

Peveril Castle was linked to the Peak Forest and the local lead mining there; [59] St Briavels was tied to the Forest of Dean ; and Knaresborough , Rockingham and Pickering to their eponymous forests respectively.

Baronial castles were of varying size and sophistication; some were classed as a caput , or the key stronghold of a given lord, and were usually larger and better fortified than the norm and usually held the local baronial honorial courts.

The links between castles and the surrounding lands and estates was particularly important during this period. Many castles, both royal and baronial, had deer parks or chases attached to them for the purposes of hunting.

Civil war broke out in England and raged between and , forming a turbulent period in which the rival factions of King Stephen and the Empress Matilda struggled for power.

Both sides responded to the challenge of the conflict by building many new castles, sometimes as sets of strategic fortifications. In the south-west Matilda's supporters built a range of castles to protect the territory, usually motte and bailey designs such as those at Winchcombe , Upper Slaughter , or Bampton.

Matilda's son Henry II assumed the throne at the end of the war and immediately announced his intention to eliminate the adulterine castles that had sprung up during the war, but it is unclear how successful this effort was.

Castles in Scotland emerged as a consequence of the centralising of royal authority in the 12th century. The Norman expansion into Wales slowed in the 12th century, but remained an ongoing threat to the remaining native rulers.

In response the Welsh princes and lords began to build their own castles, usually in wood. Ireland remained ruled by native kings into the 12th century, largely without the use of castles.

The Norman invasion of Ireland began between and , under first Richard de Clare and then Henry II of England, with the occupation of southern and eastern Ireland by a number of Anglo-Norman barons.

Castle design in Britain continued to change towards the end of the 12th century. The developments spread to Anglo-Norman possessions in Ireland where this English style of castles dominated throughout the 13th century, although the deteriorating Irish economy of the 14th century brought this wave of building to an end.

In the ensuing wars of Scottish Independence castle building in Scotland altered path, turning away from building larger, more conventional castles with curtain walls.

Some of these changes were driven by developments in military technology. Before mining was used rarely and the siege engines of the time were largely incapable of damaging the thicker castle walls.

Richard I used them in his sieges during the Third Crusade and appears to have started to alter his castle designs to accommodate the new technology on his return to Europe.

Castles saw an increasing use of arrowslits by the 13th century, especially in England, almost certainly linked to the introduction of crossbows.

One result of this was that English castle sieges grew in complexity and scale. Extensive water defences withstood the attack of the future Edward I , despite the prince targeting the weaker parts of the castle walls, employing huge siege towers and attempting a night attack using barges brought from Chester.

Edinburgh Castle fell within three days, and Roxburgh , Jedburgh , Dunbar , Stirling , Lanark and Dumbarton castles surrendered to the king.

A number of royal castles, from the 12th century onwards, formed an essential network of royal storehouses in the 13th century for a wide range of goods including food, drink, weapons, armour and raw materials.

The development of the baronial castles in England were affected by the economic changes during the period.

The remaining English castles became increasingly comfortable. Their interiors were often painted and decorated with tapestries , which would be transported from castle to castle as nobles travelled around the country.

By the late 13th century some castles were built within carefully "designed landscapes", sometimes drawing a distinction between an inner core of a herber , a small enclosed garden complete with orchards and small ponds, and an outer region with larger ponds and high status buildings such as "religious buildings, rabbit warrens, mills and settlements", potentially set within a park.

During the 13th century the native Welsh princes built a number of stone castles. In Edward I launched a final invasion of the remaining native Welsh strongholds in North Wales, intending to establish his rule over the region on a permanent basis.

As part of this occupation he instructed his leading nobles to construct eight new castles across the region; Aberystwyth and Builth in mid-Wales and Beaumaris , Conwy , Caernarfon , Flint , Harlech and Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales.

Allen Brown has described these as "amongst the finest achievements of medieval military architecture [in England and Wales]".

James of Saint George , a famous architect and engineer from Savoy , was probably responsible for the bulk of the construction work across the region.

The Edwardian castles also made strong symbolic statements about the nature of the new occupation. For example, Caernarvon was decorated with carved eagles, equipped with polygonal towers and expensive banded masonry, all designed to imitate the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, then the idealised image of imperial power.

In the middle of the 13th century Henry III began to redesign his favourite castles, including Winchester and Windsor , building larger halls, grander chapels, installing glass windows and decorating the palaces with painted walls and furniture.

Life in earlier keeps had been focused around a single great hall, with privacy for the owner's family provided by using an upper floor for their own living accommodation.

By the 14th century nobles were travelling less, bringing much larger households with them when they did travel and entertaining visitors with equally large retinues.

Kings and the most wealthy lords could afford to redesign castles to produce palace-fortresses. In the south of England private castles were being built by newly emerging, wealthy families; like the work at Windsor, these castles drew on the architectural themes of earlier martial designs, but were not intended to form a serious defence against attack.

In the north of England improvements in the security of the Scottish border, and the rise of major noble families such as the Percies and the Nevilles , encouraged a surge in castle building at the end of the 14th century.

Early gunpowder weapons were introduced to England from the s onwards and began to appear in Scotland by the s. Early cannons had only a limited range and were unreliable; in addition early stone cannonballs were relatively ineffective when fired at stone castle walls.

Cannons in English castles were initially deployed along the south coast where the Channel ports, essential for English trade and military operations in Europe, were increasingly threatened by French raids.

By the 15th century very few castles were well maintained by their owners. Many royal castles were receiving insufficient investment to allow them to be maintained — roofs leaked, stone work crumbled, lead or wood was stolen.

The ranks of the baronage continued to reduce in the 15th century, producing a smaller elite of wealthier lords but reducing the comparative wealth of the majority.

The 15th and 16th centuries saw a small number of British castles develop into still grander structures, often drawing on the Renaissance views on architecture that were increasing in popularity on the continent.

Tower keeps, large solid keeps used for private accommodation, probably inspired by those in France had started to appear in the 14th century at Dudley and Warkworth.

Royal builders in Scotland led the way in adopting further European Renaissance styles in castle design. James IV and James V used exceptional one-off revenues, such as the forfeiture of key lands, to establish their power across their kingdom in various ways including constructing grander castles such as Linlithgow , almost invariably by extending and modifying existing fortifications.

These changes also included shifts in social and cultural beliefs. Although the size of noble households shrank slightly during the 16th century, the number of guests at the largest castle events continued to grow.

Tower houses were a common feature of British and Irish castle building in the late medieval period: The defences of tower houses were primarily aimed to provide protection against smaller raiding parties and were not intended to put up significant opposition to an organised military assault, leading historian Stuart Reid to characterise them as "defensible rather than defensive".

Analysis of the construction of tower houses has focused on two key driving forces. The first is that the construction of these castles appears to have been linked to periods of instability and insecurity in the areas concerned.

Cannons continued to be improved during the 15th and 16th centuries. Henry VIII became concerned with the threat of French invasion during and was familiar with the more modern continental designs.

These coastal defences marked a shift away from castles, which were both military fortifications and domestic buildings, towards forts , which were garrisoned but not domestic; often the s are chosen as a transition date for the study of castles as a consequence.

Nonetheless, improved gunpowder artillery played a part in the reconquest of Ireland in the s, where the successful English siege of Maynooth Castle in demonstrated the power of the new siege guns.

In James VI of Scotland inherited the crown of England, bringing a period of peace between the two countries. The royal court left for London and, as a result — with the exceptions of occasional visits, building work on royal castles north of the border largely ceased.

James sold off many royal castles in England to property developers, including York and Southampton Castle. Lincoln , Kendal , York, Nottingham , Bristol , Queenborough , Southampton and Rochester were amongst those in a state of dilapidation.

The war expanded to include Ireland and Scotland, and dragged on into three separate conflicts in England itself.

The war was the first prolonged conflict in Britain to involve the use of artillery and gunpowder. York Castle formed a key part of the city defences, with a military governor; rural castles such as Goodrich could be used a bases for raiding and for control of the surrounding countryside; larger castles, such as Windsor , became used for holding prisoners of war or as military headquarters.

Sieges became a prominent part of the war with over occurring during the period, many of them involving castles.

The heavy artillery introduced in England eventually spread to the rest of the British Isles. Although up to a thousand Irish soldiers who had served in Europe returned during the war, bringing with them experience of siege warfare from the Thirty Years' War in Europe, it was the arrival of Oliver Cromwell 's train of siege guns in that transformed the conflict, and the fate of local castles.

The English Civil War resulted in Parliament issuing orders to slight or damage many castles, particularly in prominent royal regions. This was particularly in the period of to , with a peak in Private, grounds open under the National Gardens Scheme.

Usually the name of the surviving building, but not always—for instance the remains of the historic Bampton Castle were incorporated in a later building known as Ham Court.

Brief information relating to the current ownership or use of the site, an icon signifying that the site is frequently open to the public. Brick, unfinished, ruined gatehouse and chapel survive.

Restored and extended by James Wyatt and Jeffry Wyattville , — Moated site, gatehouse survives, altered in the 16—17th centuries, converted to house 20th century.

Renamed Buckden Towers, partly demolished and remnants incorporated with a 19th-century house. Gatehouse survives, incorporated in building of —, remodelled and extended in the 18—19th centuries.

Site of medieval castle, rebuilt and later remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh — Elaborate scheme of domestic medieval wall paintings.

West range of original building survives, with alterations. Sited on crag high above Cheshire Plain , 19th-century outer gatehouse.

Agricola tower sole feature of medieval castle to survive an 18th-century fire. Transformed into castle by Smirke , — Also known as Delves Hall.

Commanding position, 13th-century tower, 18th-century courthouse, folly of c. By Anthony Salvin , possibly the last serious fortified home built in Britain.

Mostly 16th-century, fragments remain of medieval castle, residence of the Bishop of Durham. Ruins of keep survive. Substantial medieval portions, including 5 towers incorporated in 19th-century rebuilding.

Much altered during continuous occupation since c. Later additions demolished following subsidence.

Altered in the 18—19th centuries. Probably built as a hunting lodge for the Neville family of Raby Castle. South-west tower and adjoining wall possibly medieval.

Used as a leisure centre for a caravan site. Built in by John Nash. Possible medieval hunting lodge rebuilt in the 18—19th centuries. House may have been held against the Roundheads in Withstood 5-month siege in Original tower house defended against the French in , subsequently strengthened, later rebuilt.

At mouth of River Fowey. Position not defensible from land attack. Castle and priory church comprise single building. Restored in the 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.

Incorporated in later buildings. Altered by Anthony Salvin. Sited within Roman fort. Once a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle.

Adjoining large 19th-century house. Restored in —62 by Lady Anne Clifford. Converted into country house in 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.

Ruins of 19th-century house incorporating remains of earlier building. Incorporated in later building. Converted to barracks 19th century.

Used as a farm building until Concealed within a Georgian Mansion House. Restored in the 17th and 19th centuries. Original tower with early Classical Revival facade.

Abandoned late 15th century. Rebuilt incorporating parts of 14th-century building, remodelled in by Anthony Salvin. Castle converted to house.

Altered and remodelled in the 17—18th century. Later alterations and additions. Incorporated in large, mostly 19th-century mansion.

Altered and remodelled in the 17—20th century. Shell of a 19th-century castle by Smirke , on site of medieval hall.

Altered and extended in the 15—19th centuries. Remodelled by Anthony Salvin , home of Tom Fool , 16th-century jester. Wedding venue Earl of Carlisle.

Altered and restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. Remodelled by Anthony Salvin. Also known as Fouldrey Castle.

Part of the Deanery , alongside later buildings. Converted to private house 17th century, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle until Incorporated with later house.

Altered in the 18—20th centuries. Alongside later building, reduced in height. Alterations by Anthony Salvin. Inhabited until , requisitioned by the army in the Second World War and since allowed to fall into ruin.

Also known as Curwen Hall. Used as barn and cow-house, adjoining a 19th-century house. Castle rebuilt as a 17th-century mansion.

Built in , remodelled by James Wyatt in 19th century, now within country park. Altered in the 16—17th centuries, restored in the s.

Ruined gatehouse adjoining farm. Commanding position above ravine. Abandoned in the 18th century.

Gatehouse of house sacked during English Civil War, with 19th-century alterations. Very late castle, designed to defend against artillery.

Used as farm after , restored 20th century. Converted to artillery castle — Remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries. Medieval fragments survive with later buildings.

Well-preserved keep on high motte. Incorporates part of a 16th-century Henrician Castle. Hall house known as Constable's House survives, with rare Norman chimney.

Besieged and slighted during the English Civil War. Hunting lodge, gutted by fire Also known as Bow and Arrow Castle.

Replaced by 16—17th century house, which became known as Sherborne Castle. Originally part of larger house, roofless. South range remains, inhabited until gutted by fire in Brick, interior dismantled in , restored 20th century, former home of Royal Greenwich Observatory , now Study Centre.

Unusual in having two mottes []. Castle built within surviving walls of Roman fort of Saxon Shore.

Originally called Baddings Tower. Reduced in height in 17th century. Castle demolished in the 17th century except for keep, well-preserved interior despite fire of Largely unaltered until the s, when interior modernised by 8th Earl of Berkeley.

Restored as a country house in the 19th century. Restored in the 19th century. White Tower built c. Ruinous tower formerly incorporated in timber house.

Altered in the 18—20th centuries, in use until Repaired and refortified in the 19th century. Remodelled and extended in — Built by King John.

Built within surviving walls of Roman fort of the Saxon Shore. North bailey wall survives. Great hall survives, reroofed in Altered and extended in — Partly demolished during English Civil War.

Medieval tower and gateway survive, remainder largely rebuilt by Nash — Altered in the 17—19th centuries. Partly dismantled in Remains incorporated in a 19th-century house.

Refortified in the s as artillery fortress, former seat of the Governor of the Isle of Wight. Gothic Revival , by James Wyatt.

Altered in the 17th century. Fragments of a 16th-century structure incorporated in a later building. Important and complete example of Elizabethan fort.

Keep survives with Jacobean house. Well-preserved gatehouse survives, barns used for events. Formerly residence of Captain of the Cinque Ports.

Adapted for modern warfare 18—19th centuries. Restored early 19th century, working portcullis. Extensively rebuilt in and Restored and extended in — The palace was one of the chain of houses belonging to the archbishops of Canterbury.

Remodelled in the 19th century, single tower and stretch of wall survive from fortifications of c. St Leonard's Tower, West Malling.

Single surviving tower incorporated in later house. Fine medieval hall-house remains from possibly fortified manor house.

Medieval tower incorporated in building of Residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 18th century.

Walkways along the tops of the curtain walls allowed defenders to rain missiles on enemies below, and battlements gave them further protection.

Curtain walls were studded with towers to allow enfilading fire along the wall. The entrance was often the weakest part in a circuit of defences. To overcome this, the gatehouse was developed, allowing those inside the castle to control the flow of traffic.

In earth and timber castles, the gateway was usually the first feature to be rebuilt in stone. The front of the gateway was a blind spot and to overcome this, projecting towers were added on each side of the gate in a style similar to that developed by the Romans.

The passage through the gatehouse was lengthened to increase the amount of time an assailant had to spend under fire in a confined space and unable to retaliate.

During the 13th and 14th centuries the barbican was developed. The purpose of a barbican was not just to provide another line of defence but also to dictate the only approach to the gate.

A moat was a defensive ditch with steep sides, and could be either dry or filled with water. Its purpose was twofold; to stop devices such as siege towers from reaching the curtain wall and to prevent the walls from being undermined.

Water moats were found in low-lying areas and were usually crossed by a drawbridge , although these were often replaced by stone bridges.

Fortified islands could be added to the moat, adding another layer of defence. Water defences, such as moats or natural lakes, had the benefit of dictating the enemy's approach to the castle.

Battlements were most often found surmounting curtain walls and the tops of gatehouses, and comprised several elements: Crenellation is the collective name for alternating crenels and merlons: Hoardings were wooden constructs that projected beyond the wall, allowing defenders to shoot at, or drop objects on, attackers at the base of the wall without having to lean perilously over the crenellations, thereby exposing themselves to retaliatory fire.

Machicolations were stone projections on top of a wall with openings that allowed objects to be dropped on an enemy at the base of the wall in a similar fashion to hoardings.

Arrowslits , also commonly called loopholes, were narrow vertical openings in defensive walls which allowed arrows or crossbow bolts to be fired on attackers.

The narrow slits were intended to protect the defender by providing a very small target, but the size of the opening could also impede the defender if it was too small.

A smaller horizontal opening could be added to give an archer a better view for aiming. Historian Charles Coulson states that the accumulation of wealth and resources, such as food, led to the need for defensive structures.

The earliest fortifications originated in the Fertile Crescent , the Indus Valley , Egypt, and China where settlements were protected by large walls.

Northern Europe was slower than the East to develop defensive structures and it was not until the Bronze Age that hill forts were developed, which then proliferated across Europe in the Iron Age.

These structures differed from their eastern counterparts in that they used earthworks rather than stone as a building material.

The Romans' own fortifications castra varied from simple temporary earthworks thrown up by armies on the move, to elaborate permanent stone constructions, notably the milecastles of Hadrian's Wall.

Roman forts were generally rectangular with rounded corners — a "playing-card shape". In the medieval period, castles were influenced by earlier forms of elite architecture, contributing to regional variations.

Importantly, while castles had military aspects, they contained a recognisable household structure within their walls, reflecting the multi-functional use of these buildings.

The subject of the emergence of castles in Europe is a complex matter which has led to considerable debate. Discussions have typically attributed the rise of the castle to a reaction to attacks by Magyars , Muslims, and Vikings and a need for private defence.

Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border regions had relatively few castles.

It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying a lordly home. The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure.

To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: A bank and ditch enclosure was a simple form of defence, and when found without an associated motte is called a ringwork; when the site was in use for a prolonged period, it was sometimes replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone curtain wall.

These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of halls.

They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area, [62] and formed a centre of administration, providing the lord with a place to hold court.

Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Bald , prohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.

This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though military historian R. Allen Brown points out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time.

Switzerland is an extreme case of there being no state control over who built castles, and as a result there were 4, in the country. From onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased greatly.

Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden increase in the number of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics.

Despite the common period in which castles rose to prominence in Europe, their form and design varied from region to region.

The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction to attacks from Wendish pirates, and they were usually intended as coastal defences. Their decoration emulated Romanesque architecture , and sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.

Donjons, which were the residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The design emphasis of donjons changed to reflect a shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape.

This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display. This has been partly attributed to the higher cost of stone-built fortifications, and the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant it was preferable to build in more durable stone.

At the same time there was a change in castle architecture. The towers would have protruded from the walls and featured arrowslits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing or at the curtain wall.

These later castles did not always have a keep, but this may have been because the more complex design of the castle as a whole drove up costs and the keep was sacrificed to save money.

The larger towers provided space for habitation to make up for the loss of the donjon. Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical.

A peculiar feature of Muslim castles in the Iberian Peninsula was the use of detached towers, called Albarrana towers , around the perimeter as can be seen at the Alcazaba of Badajoz.

They were connected to the castle by removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was not accessible. When seeking to explain this change in the complexity and style of castles, antiquarians found their answer in the Crusades.

It seemed that the Crusaders had learned much about fortification from their conflicts with the Saracens and exposure to Byzantine architecture.

An example of this approach is Kerak. Although there were no scientific elements to its design, it was almost impregnable, and in Saladin chose to lay siege to the castle and starve out its garrison rather than risk an assault.

The castles they founded to secure their acquisitions were designed mostly by Syrian master-masons. Their design was very similar to that of a Roman fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and had square towers at each corner that did not project much beyond the curtain wall.

The keep of these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally be undecorated. While castles were used to hold a site and control movement of armies, in the Holy Land some key strategic positions were left unfortified.

Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each was different. Saphadin , the 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, however they had little influence on Crusader castles.

The orders were responsible for the foundation of sites such as Krak des Chevaliers , Margat , and Belvoir. Design varied not just between orders, but between individual castles, though it was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences.

The concept, which originated in castles such as Krak des Chevaliers, was to remove the reliance on a central strongpoint and to emphasise the defence of the curtain walls.

There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.

If assailants made it past the first line of defence they would be caught in the killing ground between the inner and outer walls and have to assault the second wall.

For instance, it was common in Crusader castles to have the main gate in the side of a tower and for there to be two turns in the passageway, lengthening the time it took for someone to reach the outer enclosure.

It is rare for this bent entrance to be found in Europe. One of the effects of the Livonian Crusade in the Baltic was the introduction of stone and brick fortifications.

Although there were hundreds of wooden castles in Prussia and Livonia , the use of bricks and mortar was unknown in the region before the Crusaders.

Until the 13th century and start of the 14th centuries, their design was heterogeneous, however this period saw the emergence of a standard plan in the region: Arrowslits did not compromise the wall's strength, but it was not until Edward I's programme of castle building that they were widely adopted in Europe.

The Crusades also led to the introduction of machicolations into Western architecture. Although machicolations performed the same purpose as the wooden galleries, they were probably an Eastern invention rather than an evolution of the wooden form.

Conflict and interaction between the two groups led to an exchange of architectural ideas, and Spanish Christians adopted the use of detached towers.

These were the men who built all the most typical twelfth-century fortified castles remaining to-day". The new castles were generally of a lighter build than earlier structures and presented few innovations, although strong sites were still created such as that of Raglan in Wales.

At the same time, French castle architecture came to the fore and led the way in the field of medieval fortifications. Artillery powered by gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the s and spread quickly.

Handguns, which were initially unpredictable and inaccurate weapons, were not recorded until the s. These guns were too heavy for a man to carry and fire, but if he supported the butt end and rested the muzzle on the edge of the gun port he could fire the weapon.

The gun ports developed in this period show a unique feature, that of a horizontal timber across the opening.

A hook on the end of the gun could be latched over the timber so the gunner did not have to take the full recoil of the weapon. This adaptation is found across Europe, and although the timber rarely survives, there is an intact example at Castle Doornenburg in the Netherlands.

Gunports were keyhole shaped, with a circular hole at the bottom for the weapon and a narrow slit on top to allow the gunner to aim.

This form is very common in castles adapted for guns, found in Egypt, Italy, Scotland, and Spain, and elsewhere in between.

Defences against guns were not developed until a later stage. In an effort to make them more effective, guns were made ever bigger, although this hampered their ability to reach remote castles.

By the s guns were the preferred siege weapon, and their effectiveness was demonstrated by Mehmed II at the Fall of Constantinople. Map of castles in Northamptonshire.

Map of castles in Northumberland. Map of castles in North Yorkshire. Map of castles in Nottinghamshire. Map of castles in Oxfordshire.

Map of castles in Rutland. Map of castles in Shropshire. List of castles in Somerset. Map of castles in Somerset.

Castles in South Yorkshire. Map of castles in South Yorkshire. Map of castles in Staffordshire. Audley Castle Heighley Castle.

Map of castles in Suffolk. Map of castles in Surrey. Map of castles in Tyne and Wear. Burradon Tower Heaton Castle.

Map of castles in Warwickshire. Map of castles in West Midlands. Map of castles in West Sussex. Map of castles in West Yorkshire. Map of castles in Wiltshire.

Map of castles in Worcestershire. See King , p. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 30 April Archived from the original on 16 October Archived from the original on 4 March Catherine's Castle" Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Mawes Castle" Archived at the Wayback Machine. Michael's Mount" Archived at the Wayback Machine. Briavel's Castle" Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 10 February Leonard's Tower" Archived at the Wayback Machine.

List of castles in Europe. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Archived copy as title Webarchive template other archives.

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Private, grounds open under the National Gardens Scheme. Usually the name of the surviving building, but not always—for instance the remains of the historic Bampton Castle were incorporated in a later building known as Ham Court.

Brief information relating to the current ownership or use of the site, an icon signifying that the site is frequently open to the public.

Brick, unfinished, ruined gatehouse and chapel survive. Restored and extended by James Wyatt and Jeffry Wyattville , — Moated site, gatehouse survives, altered in the 16—17th centuries, converted to house 20th century.

Renamed Buckden Towers, partly demolished and remnants incorporated with a 19th-century house. Gatehouse survives, incorporated in building of —, remodelled and extended in the 18—19th centuries.

Site of medieval castle, rebuilt and later remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh — Elaborate scheme of domestic medieval wall paintings.

West range of original building survives, with alterations. Sited on crag high above Cheshire Plain , 19th-century outer gatehouse.

Agricola tower sole feature of medieval castle to survive an 18th-century fire. Transformed into castle by Smirke , — Also known as Delves Hall.

Commanding position, 13th-century tower, 18th-century courthouse, folly of c. By Anthony Salvin , possibly the last serious fortified home built in Britain.

Mostly 16th-century, fragments remain of medieval castle, residence of the Bishop of Durham. Ruins of keep survive.

Substantial medieval portions, including 5 towers incorporated in 19th-century rebuilding. Much altered during continuous occupation since c. Later additions demolished following subsidence.

Altered in the 18—19th centuries. Probably built as a hunting lodge for the Neville family of Raby Castle. South-west tower and adjoining wall possibly medieval.

Used as a leisure centre for a caravan site. Built in by John Nash. Possible medieval hunting lodge rebuilt in the 18—19th centuries.

House may have been held against the Roundheads in Withstood 5-month siege in Original tower house defended against the French in , subsequently strengthened, later rebuilt.

At mouth of River Fowey. Position not defensible from land attack. Castle and priory church comprise single building.

Restored in the 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford. Incorporated in later buildings. Altered by Anthony Salvin. Sited within Roman fort.

Once a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle. Adjoining large 19th-century house. Restored in —62 by Lady Anne Clifford. Converted into country house in 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.

Ruins of 19th-century house incorporating remains of earlier building. Incorporated in later building.

Converted to barracks 19th century. Used as a farm building until Concealed within a Georgian Mansion House. Restored in the 17th and 19th centuries.

Original tower with early Classical Revival facade. Abandoned late 15th century. Rebuilt incorporating parts of 14th-century building, remodelled in by Anthony Salvin.

Castle converted to house. Altered and remodelled in the 17—18th century. Later alterations and additions.

Incorporated in large, mostly 19th-century mansion. Altered and remodelled in the 17—20th century. Shell of a 19th-century castle by Smirke , on site of medieval hall.

Altered and extended in the 15—19th centuries. Remodelled by Anthony Salvin , home of Tom Fool , 16th-century jester. Wedding venue Earl of Carlisle.

Altered and restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. Remodelled by Anthony Salvin. Also known as Fouldrey Castle. Part of the Deanery , alongside later buildings.

Converted to private house 17th century, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle until Incorporated with later house. Altered in the 18—20th centuries.

Alongside later building, reduced in height. Alterations by Anthony Salvin. Inhabited until , requisitioned by the army in the Second World War and since allowed to fall into ruin.

Also known as Curwen Hall. Used as barn and cow-house, adjoining a 19th-century house. Castle rebuilt as a 17th-century mansion.

Built in , remodelled by James Wyatt in 19th century, now within country park. Altered in the 16—17th centuries, restored in the s.

Ruined gatehouse adjoining farm. Commanding position above ravine. Abandoned in the 18th century. Gatehouse of house sacked during English Civil War, with 19th-century alterations.

Very late castle, designed to defend against artillery. Used as farm after , restored 20th century. Converted to artillery castle — Remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Medieval fragments survive with later buildings. Well-preserved keep on high motte. Incorporates part of a 16th-century Henrician Castle.

Hall house known as Constable's House survives, with rare Norman chimney. Besieged and slighted during the English Civil War.

Hunting lodge, gutted by fire Also known as Bow and Arrow Castle. Replaced by 16—17th century house, which became known as Sherborne Castle.

Originally part of larger house, roofless. Highland castles itinerary See some of Scotland's most amazing castles as you tour the Highlands over four great days.

Stay in a castle Go a little grander with a castle stay in Scotland. Famous Scottish castles Discover 10 of Scotland's greatest castles and find out what makes them so iconic.

Camping at a castle? Scotland's Castle Trail eBook 6 days. Discover 19 of Aberdeenshire's most incredible castles in our handy eBook.

Dramatically perched above the city on Castle Rock, you can wander up to the landmark from the atmospheric, cobbled Royal Mile.

Take an interactive flight with us over the castle - how many landmarks can you spot from here?

More about Edinburgh Castle:

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